- virtualized computing: hypervisor
- virtualized storage: software defined storage
- virtualized network: software defined networking
- a communications protocol, allows a server to tell network switches where to send packets.
- used between the switch and controller on a secure channel
- program data plane, to allow control plane to scale separately from data plane
- an enabler of SDN
Type-1: bare metal hypervisor
- hypervisor runs directly on the host's hardware.
- e.g. XEN, Hyper-V(used in Windows 10), VMware ESX/ESXi
Type-2: hosted hypervisor
- hypervisor runs on a conventional operating system, a guest operating system runs as a process on the host.
- e.g. VMware Workstation, VirtualBox, QEMU
KVM, as name suggests, is kernel-based, so can be considered as both Type-1 and Type-2.
VMM(Virtual Machine Manager) = Hypervisor
QEMU is the default VMM of KVM, but can be replaced.
QEMU is a generic and open source machine emulator and virtualizer. The Android emulator is built on QEMU.
- Paravirtualization: guest OS knows that it is running on a hypervisor instead of base hardware,recognizes that other virtual machines are running on the same machine
- Hardware Virtual Machine (HVM): guest OS thinks that it is running directly on the hardware
Xen supports 2 virtualization types; Amazon supports 2 types as it runs on Xen
- Xen Para-virtualization (PV)
- Xen Full virtualization (HVM)
- An OS or Kernel called Hypervisor is installed on the hardware.
- Dom0 is called the "privileged domain" which can issue commands to the hypervisor.
- Stability/Performance is close to the real servers and hardware virtualization.
- Overhead is very low
- Implementation is tough.
- Both the host & guest kernels has to be patched.
- Supports Linux only
- can’t change the OS options during install.
- Can’t compile and install a custom kernel
- Stands for Hardware-assisted virtual machine.
- Provides complete hardware isolation. The hardware provides support to run independently for each OS
- Can run Linux and Windows
- Complete secure hardware isolation
- Resembles close to a physical server.
- Greater stability
- Low performance, because of the overheads at the hardware level