5 components that define the performance
- CPU (and cooler)
- Storage (SSD/HDD)
- full tower
- mid tower
- Wireless Card
Accessories and Peripherals
- Keyboard + mouse
ESD Wrist Straps
- USB4: spec ready, adoption expected to start from 2021. Thunderbolt 3 will become part of USB 4 standard.
- PCIe 5.0: introduced in 2019, mass production in 2020
- PCIe 6.0: planned to be introduced in 2021
The current generation is Wifi 5, or IEEE 802.11ac
The next generation is Wifi 6, or IEEE 802.11ax. You would need BOTH Wifi 6 routers AND Wifi 6 devices to take full advantages of it.
- Wifi 6 is faster than Wifi 5, but may not be that obvious.
- The true difference is that Wifi 6 can support more devices
- MU-MIMO, or "multi-user, multiple input, multiple output", is upgraded from 4 devices to 8 devices
- OFDMA, or "Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access", allows one transmission to deliver data to multiple devices at once.
- Improve battery life, especially for low-power, IoT devices.
- Better security: WPA3
Some motherboards have Wifi chips built-in, otherwise you can buy a PCIe Wifi card or USB Wifi Adaptor
- Wi-Fi 6: 2.4GHz and 5GHz
- Wi-Fi 6E: add 6GHz band, providing 5x more channels (14 80MHz channels and 7 160MHz channels)
Standard: DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification)
|Version||Since||Max Downstream||Max Upstream|
|1.0||1997||40 Mbit/s||10 Mbit/s|
|1.1||2001||40 Mbit/s||10 Mbit/s|
|2.0||2002||40 Mbit/s||30 Mbit/s|
|3.0||2006||1 Gbit/s||200 Mbit/s|
|3.1||2013||10 Gbit/s||1-2 Gbit/s|
|4.0||2017||10 Gbit/s||6 Gbit/s|
- M.2 replaces mSATA
- SATA replaces PATA
- DisplayPort and HDMI replace DVI and VGA
Semiconductor company types:
- fabless: design only, e.g. AMD
- foundries: manufacture only, e.g. TSMC
- IDM: both design and manufacture, e.g. Intel
- 200mm = 8 inch, ~6.6 million wafers per month by 2024. Marketshare in 2021: 18% China, Japan 16%, Taiwan 16%
- 300mm = 12 inch