Kubernetes - Ecosystem

Last Updated: 2022-11-12


  • Envoy: service proxy, sidecar.
  • Harbor: container registry. Since version 1.6.0 Harbor is now a composite cloud-native registry which supports both container image management and Helm charts management.
  • Helm: the package manager for k8s. (similar to npm for node.)
  • KubeVirt: manage VMs in k8s. For teams that want to adopt k8s but have legacy VM based workloads. Cost savings, from eliminating hypervisor license and efficient resource utilization across containers and VMs.
  • Knative: serverless.
  • gRPC: RPC framework.
  • cert-manager is the de facto standard for X.509 certificates in Kubernetes environments.

Container Runtime

  • containerd
  • cri-o

Storage / Databases

  • etcd: key-value store, used by k8s.
  • Vitess: horizontally scale MySQL
  • TiKV: distributed transactional key-value db, in Rust
  • Rook: orchestrating Ceph on top of k8s; Ceph: a distributed fs.

Logging / Monitoring

  • Prometheus: monitoring
  • Jaeger: tracing
  • OpenTelemetry: tracing. Merging OpenCensus and OpenTracing.
  • Fluentd / Fluentbit: push logs
    • Fluentd: written in Ruby, built as a Rube Gem, uses more memory.
    • Fluent Bit: written in C, 0 dependencies, much smaller.
  • Grafana: view logs
  • Grafana Loki: store logs


3 areas: image security, runtime security, policy management.

  • TUF: a framework, various tools implement this spec
  • Notary: an implementation of the TUF spec. Docker uses Notary behind the scenes.
  • OPA: use the same policy language, model, API for all cloud native projects.
  • Falco: container runtime security, parses Linux system calls from the kernel.


  • CNI: the interface
  • Calico
  • Flannel

Service Mesh

Injects sidecar config into the YAML.

  • Linkerd
  • Istio


Application Frameworks

Quarkus: an alternative to spring boot. Java based. Better performance, Container First, kubernetes native, microservice first. Quarkus brings immutability to containers, faster startup, and more predictability.


The Linux Foundation vs CNCF: The Linux Foundation is the parent of CNCF. CNCF is one of the LF’s largest sub-foundations.

Most of these projects are hosted in CNCF; some are directly under LF; some are independent.