Security And Privacy - Overview

Last Updated: 2023-01-08

Legal vs Compliance vs Security vs Privacy

  • Legal: What can we do.
  • Compliance: What must we do.
  • Security: How can we do it.
  • Privacy: What should we do.

Be careful about special types of data

  • Accelerometer: detects acceleration by vibration, so it can be a kind of microphone to record user's voice.
  • Timestamp: if it is down to milliseconds, it may be used as a join key to link to other datasets.

Wipeout vs Takeout

  • Wipeout: all data related to the user will be removed. The right to be forgotten.
  • Takeout: all data related to the user can be downloaded. Also serves the purpose of transparency: users know what we know about them.

Regulartions / Standards

  • GDPR: General Data Protection Regulation (EU)
  • HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. (US)
  • PCI-DSS: Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard
  • CCPA: California Consumer Privacy Act, similar to GDPR.


Data subject: the individual that information describes

6 GDPR DSRs: data subject rights

  • the right to be forgotten
  • the right to access
  • the right to portability
  • the right to restriction of processing
  • the right to rectify
  • the right to object

Methods to prove lawfulness of processing

  • contractural necessity: processing required to fulfill an agreement between a company and an individual
  • consent
  • legitimate interests

Controllers vs Processors

  • Controllers: decide how personal data will be processed. must meet obligations set forth in the GDPR
  • Processors: process data at the direction of another entity

Data governance

  • moral?
  • ethical?
  • legal?
  • fair?


Authn, authz, audit


FIPS = Federal Information Processing Standard.

FIPS 140-3: Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules. Issued by NIST.


NIST = National Institute of Standards and Technology.

NIST Cybersecurity Framework: a set of guidelines for mitigating organizational cybersecurity risks.



FedRAMP = Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program.

Required in order to do business with US government.

FedRAMP consists of a subset of NIST Special Publication 800-53 security controls specifically selected to provide protection in cloud environments.



Software Supply Chain Security (S3C)

  • source integrity (OSS, internal developers, vendors): no bad/malicious code
  • build integrity (code repo, CI/CD pipelines, package repo): build and delivery are tamper proof
  • runtime/dynamic checks (malware/vulnerability scanning, safe deployment): ensure prod systems are not compromised


Intrusion detection systems (IDS) and intrusion prevention systems (IPS)