32-bit vs 64-bit
    Annotations vs Decorators
    BigQuery vs Bigtable
    Block Storage vs File Storage vs Object Storage
    C vs C++
    Canvas vs SVG
    Constructor vs Init() vs Factory
    Containers vs Virtual Machines (VMs)
    DOM vs Virtual DOM vs Shadow DOM
    DQL vs DDL vs DCL vs DML
    Dagger vs Guice
    Data Mining vs Machine Learning vs Artificial Intelligence vs Data Science
    Flux vs Redux
    GCP API Gateway vs Cloud Endpoint
    GCP Cloud Run vs Cloud Functions vs App Engine
    GCP DataFlow vs Dataproc
    Google Analytics 4 vs Universal Analytics
    Google Internal vs Open Source
    HEIC vs HEIF vs HEVC vs JPEG
    Java vs C++
    Jetty vs Netty
    Kotlin vs Java
    LLVM vs JVM
    Linux vs BSD
    Microcontroller vs Microprocessor vs Computer
    Node.js vs Erlang
    POSIX vs SUS vs LSB
    Pass-by-value vs Pass-by-reference
    Proto2 vs Proto3
    PubSub vs Message Queue
    REST vs SOAP
    React vs Flutter vs Angular
    Rust vs C++
    SLI vs SLO vs SLA
    SRAM vs DRAM
    SSD vs HDD
    Software Engineer vs Site Reliability Engineer
    Spanner vs Bigtable
    Stack based VM vs Register based VM
    Stateless vs Stateful
    Static Site Generation vs Server-side Rendering vs Client-side Rendering
    Strong Consistency vs Eventual Consistency
    Subroutines vs Coroutines vs Generators
    Symlinks vs Hard Links
    TCP vs UDP
    Tensorflow vs PyTorch
    Terminal vs Shell
    Vi vs Vim vs gVim vs Neovim
    WAL vs rollback journal
    gtag vs Tag Manager
    stubs vs mocks vs fakes

Google Analytics 4 vs Universal Analytics

Updated: 2022-03-25

Google Analytics 4 (GA4) is now the default and recommended version of Google Analytics, replacing Universal Analytics (UA) which dates back to 2013. Universal Analytics will stop working in 2023.

GA4 doesn’t rely on cookies and uses an event-based data model for measurement. It also does not store IP addresses, which can help brands stay on the right side of privacy regulations.

Tracking Id

You need to create new properties, as the ID looks differently:


And update the tracking code ("tag") on your web pages.

Diff in hierarchy

GA4 has only 2 levels under ADMIN page, while UA has 3.

  • UA: Account -> Property -> View
  • GA4: Account -> Property

Data Collection

  • UA: sessions focused (num of sessions, bounce rate, session duration, pages per session, etc.)
    • The concept of a session can be difficult to apply to mobile and single-page apps.
  • GA4: events and users focused (events, event parameters, and user properties).
    • events: e.g. page_view
    • parameters: describe the events
    • user properties: describe the user

Other concept migrations:

  • goals -> conversion events
  • bounce rate, pages/session, and average session duration -> engagement time

Data captured across both websites and native apps now share a single format.