SATA: Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. SATA replaces PATA (Parallel ATA).
SATA Cables: one end plugs into a port on the motherboard, the other end into the back of a storage device.
data stored in semiconductor cells, one cell can contain between 1 and 4 bits of data
- SLC: single bit cells, the most reliable, durable, fast, and expensive
- MLC: 2 bits
- TLC: 3 bits
- QLC: 4 bits
- HDD: a shrinking business, only 3 big players: Western Digital(largest market share), Seagate, Toshiba
- Flash: Micron, Intel, Samsung, SK hynix, Kioxia (spun off from Toshiba, kioku: a Japanese work meaning memory, axia: a Greek word meaning value)
- Memory: volatile, byte-addressable
- SSD: persistent, block-addressable
NVM Express (NVMe) : use PCIe bus instead of SATA for SSD, reduces I/O overhead and brings various performance improvements relative to previous logical-device interfaces, including multiple, long command queues, and reduced latency.